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Conditions of Supply of Microbial Pathogens: Safety





Bacteria Collection: Mycobacterium marinum

NCTC Number: NCTC 2275
Current Name: Mycobacterium marinum
Original Strain Reference: Aronson
Other Collection No: ATCC 927; ARONSON; DSM 44344; JCM 17638; NCIMB 1297; NCMB 1303; TMC 1218
Previous Catalogue Name: Mycobacterium marinum
Type Strain: Yes
Family: Mycobacteriaceae
Hazard Group (ACDP): 2
Release Restrictions: Terms & Conditions of Supply of Microbial Pathogens: Safety
Conditions for growth on solid media: Columbia blood agar, 2-6 days, 30°C, aerobic
Isolated From: fish;salt water fish
Whole Genome Sequence: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/data/view/ERS1275654
16S rRNA Gene Sequence: >gb|AF271347|NCTC 2275|Mycobacterium marinum 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence.| gtgtgcaggtggtgc... >gb|AJ536032|TYPE STRAIN: DSM 44344|Mycobacterium marinum 16S rRNA gene.| gacgaacgctggcgg... >gb|AF456240|ATCC 927|Mycobacterium marinum strain ATCC 927 16S ribosomal RNA gene,partial sequence.| agagtttgatcctgg... >gb|U92088|ATCC927|Mycobacterium marinum ATCC 927, 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partialsequence.| tatctctgccggcgt...
23S rRNA Gene Sequence: >gb|U24532|ATCC 927|Mycobacterium marinum 23S rRNA, partial sequence.| tgcgcctacaatccg...
Bibliography: ARONSON J D 1926 J INFECT DIS 39 315
Extended Bibliography: showhide Show bibliography
Ref #: 95444
Author(s): Talaat,A.M.;Reimschuessel,R.;Trucksis,M.
Journal: Vet Microbiol
Title: Identification of mycobacteria infecting fish to the species level using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis
Volume: 58
Page(s): 229-37
Year: 1998
Keyword(s): GENBANK/U92088 GENBANK/U92089 GENBANK/U92090 Animals Base Sequence Conserved Sequence DNA Primers Deoxyribonuclease BamHI Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific *Fish Diseases Fishes Humans Mycobacterium/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification Mycobacterium Infections/diagnosis/*veterinary Polymerase Chain Reaction/*methods RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics Restriction Mapping/*methods
Remarks: An assay is described utilizing PCR technology for a rapid diagnostic test to identify fish infection with Mycobacterium marinum, M. fortuitum and M. chelonae. A 924 bp DNA fragment from a highly conserved area of the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using mycobacteria genus-specific primers and digested with restriction enzymes (BanI and ApaI). This examination yielded unique restriction patterns for each mycobacterial specie enabling identification of mycobacteria infecting fish to the species level. The protocol can be applied to purified DNA, a simple colony preparation or infected fish tissue. This protocol can be completed in 1-2 days.
URL: 9453133
Ref #: 60196
Author(s): Kim,B.J.;Lee,S.H.;Lyu,M.A.;Kim,S.J.;Bai,G.H.;Chae,G.T.;Kim,E.C.;Cha,C.Y.;Kook,Y.H.
Journal: J Clin Microbiol
Title: Identification of mycobacterial species by comparative sequence analysis of the RNA polymerase gene (rpoB)
Volume: 37
Page(s): 1714-20
Year: 1999
Keyword(s): GENBANK/AF057449 GENBANK/AF057450 GENBANK/AF057451 GENBANK/AF057452 GENBANK/AF057453 GENBANK/AF057454 GENBANK/AF057455 GENBANK/AF057456 GENBANK/AF057457 GENBANK/AF057458 GENBANK/AF057459 GENBANK/AF057460 GENBANK/AF057461 GENBANK/AF057462 GENBANK/AF057463 GENBANK/AF057464 GENBANK/AF057465 GENBANK/AF057466 GENBANK/AF057467 GENBANK/AF057468 GENBANK/AF057469 GENBANK/AF057470 GENBANK/AF057471 GENBANK/AF057472 GENBANK/AF057473 GENBANK/AF057474 GENBANK/AF057475 GENBANK/AF057476 GENBANK/AF057477 GENBANK/AF057478 etc. Amino Acid Sequence DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/chemistry/*genetics Humans Molecular Sequence Data Mycobacterium/*classification/enzymology/genetics Mycobacterium Infections/microbiology Phylogeny Restriction Mapping Sequence Alignment Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Remarks: For the differentiation and identification of mycobacterial species, the rpoB gene, encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase, was investigated. rpoB DNAs (342 bp) were amplified from 44 reference strains of mycobacteria and clinical isolates (107 strains) by PCR. The nucleotide sequences were directly determined (306 bp) and aligned by using the multiple alignment algorithm in the MegAlign package (DNASTAR) and the MEGA program. A phylogenetic tree was constructed by the neighbor-joining method. Comparative sequence analysis of rpoB DNAs provided the basis for species differentiation within the genus Mycobacterium. Slowly and rapidly growing groups of mycobacteria were clearly separated, and each mycobacterial species was differentiated as a distinct entity in the phylogenetic tree. Pathogenic Mycobacterium kansasii was easily differentiated from nonpathogenic M. gastri; this differentiation cannot be achieved by using 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequences. By being grouped into species-specific clusters with low-level sequence divergence among strains of the same species, all of the clinical isolates could be easily identified. These results suggest that comparative sequence analysis of amplified rpoB DNAs can be used efficiently to identify clinical isolates of mycobacteria in parallel with traditional culture methods and as a supplement to 16S rDNA gene analysis. Furthermore, in the case of M. tuberculosis, rifampin resistance can be simultaneously determined.
URL: 10325313
Ref #: 95504
Author(s): Stinear,T.P.;Jenkin,G.A.;Johnson,P.D.;Davies,J.K.
Journal: J Bacteriol
Title: Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum reveals evidence of recent divergence
Volume: 182
Page(s): 6322-30
Year: 2000
Keyword(s): GENBANK/AF271093 GENBANK/AF271094 GENBANK/AF271095 GENBANK/AF271097 Animals Base Sequence Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field *Genes, Bacterial Humans Molecular Sequence Data Mycobacterium marinum/classification/*genetics Mycobacterium ulcerans/classification/*genetics Nucleic Acid Hybridization Phylogeny RNA, Bacterial/analysis RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis Recombination, Genetic Restriction Mapping Sequence Alignment Species Specificity
Remarks: Previous studies of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium marinum have suggested a very close genetic relationship between these species (99.6% identity). However, these organisms are phenotypically distinct and cause diseases with very different pathologies. To investigate this apparent paradox, we compared 3,306 nucleotides from the partial sequences of eight housekeeping and structural genes derived from 18 M. ulcerans strains and 22 M. marinum strains. This analysis confirmed the close genetic relationship inferred from the 16S rRNA data, with nucleotide sequence identity ranging from 98.1 to 99.7%. The multilocus sequence analysis also confirmed previous genotype studies of M. ulcerans that have identified distinct genotypes within a geographical region. Single isolates of both M. ulcerans and M. marinum that were shown by the sequence analysis to be the most closely related were then selected for further study. One- and two-dimensional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was employed to compare the architecture and size of the genome from each species. Genome sizes of approximately 4.4 and 4.6 Mb were obtained for M. ulcerans and M. marinum, respectively. Significant macrorestriction fragment polymorphism was observed between the species. However, hybridization analysis of DNA cleaved with more frequently cutting enzymes identified significant preservation of the flanking sequence at seven of the eight loci sequenced. The exception was the 16S rRNA locus. Two high-copy-number insertion sequences, IS2404 and IS2606, have recently been reported in M. ulcerans, and significantly, these elements are not present in M. marinum. Hybridization of the AseI restriction fragments from M. ulcerans with IS2404 and IS2606 indicated widespread genome distribution for both of these repeated sequences. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that M. ulcerans has recently diverged from M. marinum by the acquisition and concomitant loss of DNA in a manner analogous to the emergence of M. tuberculosis, where species diversity is being driven mainly by the activity of mobile DNA elements.
URL: 11053375
Ref #: 75210
Author(s): Stone,B.B.;Nietupski,R.M.;Breton,G.L.;Weisburg,W.G.
Journal: Int J Syst Bacteriol
Title: Comparison of Mycobacterium 23S rRNA sequences by high-temperature reverse transcription and PCR
Volume: 45
Page(s): 811-9
Year: 1995
Keyword(s): GENBANK/U24502 GENBANK/U24503 GENBANK/U24504 GENBANK/U24505 GENBANK/U24506 GENBANK/U24507 GENBANK/U24508 GENBANK/U24509 GENBANK/U24510 GENBANK/U24511 GENBANK/U24512 GENBANK/U24513 GENBANK/U24514 GENBANK/U24515 GENBANK/U24516 GENBANK/U24517 GENBANK/U24518 GENBANK/U24519 GENBANK/U24520 GENBANK/U24521 GENBANK/U24522 GENBANK/U24523 GENBANK/U24524 GENBANK/U24525 GENBANK/U24526 GENBANK/U24527 GENBANK/U24528 GENBANK/U24529 GENBANK/U24530 GENBANK/U24531 Base Sequence Molecular Sequence Data Mycobacterium/*genetics Phylogeny *Polymerase Chain Reaction RNA, Bacterial/*chemistry RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry RNA, Ribosomal, 23S/*chemistry Temperature Transcription, Genetic
Remarks: We describe a modified rRNA sequence analysis method which we used to determine the phylogenetic relationships among 58 species belonging to the genus Mycobacterium. We combined the sensitivity of the reverse transcriptase PCR for amplifying nanogram amounts of template rRNA material with the elevated extension temperatures used for the thermostable DNA polymerase from Thermus thermophilus. A 70 degrees C reverse transcription extension step permitted improved read-through of highly structured rRNA templates from members of the genus Mycobacterium, which have G+C contents of 66 to 71 mol%. The nucleic acid sequences of the amplified material were then determined by performing thermal cycle sequencing with alpha-33P-labeled primers, again with extension at 70 degrees C. Nonspecifically terminated bands were chased by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. Our method had a template requirement of nanogram amounts or less of purified RNA or 2,000 CFU of intact cells and had sufficient sensitivity so that lyophils obtained from the American Type Culture Collection could be used as source material. Sequences from a 250-nucleotide stretch of the 23S rRNA were aligned, and phylogenetic trees were evaluated by using the De Soete distance treeing algorithm and Rhodococcus bronchialis as the outgroup. Our 23S rRNA trees were compared with previously published 16S rRNA trees, including the comprehensive trees developed by the University of Illinois Ribosomal Database Project, and included 15 species not evaluated previously. Most of the groups were in general agreement and were consistent with relationships determined on the basis of biochemical characteristics, but some new relationships were also observed.
URL: 7547304
Ref #: 95489
Author(s): Ucko,M.;Colorni,A.;Kvitt,H.;Diamant,A.;Zlotkin,A.;Knibb,W.R.
Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol
Title: Strain variation in Mycobacterium marinum fish isolates
Volume: 68
Page(s): 5281-7
Year: 2002
Keyword(s): Animals *Bacterial Proteins Chaperonins/*classification/genetics DNA, Bacterial/analysis Fishes/*microbiology Mycobacterium marinum/*classification/genetics/isolation & purification Phylogeny RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/*analysis/genetics Restriction Mapping Variation (Genetics)
Remarks: A molecular characterization of two Mycobacterium marinum genes, 16S rRNA and hsp65, was carried out with a total of 21 isolates from various species of fish from both marine and freshwater environments of Israel, Europe, and the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of both genes revealed that all M. marinum isolates from fish in Israel belonged to two different strains, one infecting marine (cultured and wild) fish and the other infecting freshwater (cultured) fish. A restriction enzyme map based on the nucleotide sequences of both genes confirmed the divergence of the Israeli marine isolates from the freshwater isolates and differentiated the Israeli isolates from the foreign isolates, with the exception of one of three Greek isolates from marine fish which was identical to the Israeli marine isolates. The second isolate from Greece exhibited a single base alteration in the 16S rRNA sequence, whereas the third isolate was most likely a new Mycobacterium species. Isolates from Denmark and Thailand shared high sequence homology to complete identity with reference strain ATCC 927. Combined analysis of the two gene sequences increased the detection of intraspecific variations and was thus of importance in studying the taxonomy and epidemiology of this aquatic pathogen. Whether the Israeli M. marinum strain infecting marine fish is endemic to the Red Sea and found extremely susceptible hosts in the exotic species imported for aquaculture or rather was accidentally introduced with occasional imports of fingerlings from the Mediterranean Sea could not be determined.
URL: 12406715
Ref #: 61936
Author(s): Lefmann,M.;Honisch,C.;Bocker,S.;Storm,N.;von Wintzingerode,F.;Schlotelburg,C.;Moter,A.;van den Boom,D.;Gobel,U.B.
Journal: J Clin Microbiol
Title: Novel mass spectrometry-based tool for genotypic identification of mycobacteria
Volume: 42
Page(s): 339-46
Year: 2004
Keyword(s): Genotype Mycobacterium/classification/*genetics Polymerase Chain Reaction RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/*methods
Remarks: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after base-specific cleavage of PCR amplified and in vitro-transcribed 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) was used for the identification of mycobacteria. Full-length 16S rDNA reference sequences of 12 type strains of Mycobacterium spp. frequently isolated from clinical specimens were determined by PCR, cloning, and sequencing. For MALDI-TOF MS-based comparative sequence analysis, mycobacterial 16S rDNA signature sequences ( approximately 500 bp) of the 12 type strains and 24 clinical isolates were PCR amplified using RNA promoter-tagged forward primers. T7 RNA polymerase-mediated transcription of forward strands in the presence of 5-methyl ribo-CTP maximized mass differences of fragments generated by base-specific cleavage. In vitro transcripts were subsequently treated with RNase T1, resulting in G-specific cleavage. Sample analysis by MALDI-TOF MS showed a specific mass signal pattern for each of the 12 type strains, allowing unambiguous identification. All 24 clinical isolates were identified unequivocally by comparing their detected mass signal pattern to the reference sequence-derived in silico pattern of the type strains and to the in silico mass patterns of published 16S rDNA sequences. A 16S rDNA microheterogeneity of the Mycobacterium xenopi type strain (DSM 43995) was detected by MALDI-TOF MS and later confirmed by Sanger dideoxy sequencing. In conclusion, analysis of 16S rDNA amplicons by MS after base-specific cleavage of RNA transcripts allowed fast and reliable identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and ubiquitous mycobacteria (mycobacteria other than tuberculosis). The technology delivers an open platform for high-throughput microbial identification on the basis of any specific genotypic marker region.
URL: 14715774
Ref #: 13165
Author(s): Talaat,A.M.;Reimschuessel,R.;Trucksis,M.
Journal: Vet Microbiol
Title: Identification of mycobacteria infecting fish to the species level using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis
Volume: 58
Page(s): 229-37
Year: 1998
Keyword(s): GENBANK/U92088 GENBANK/U92089 GENBANK/U92090 Animal Base Sequence Conserved Sequence DNA Primers Deoxyribonuclease BamHI Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific *Fish Diseases Fishes Human Mycobacterium/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification Mycobacterium Infections/diagnosis/*veterinary Polymerase Chain Reaction/*methods RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics Restriction Mapping/*methods Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Remarks: An assay is described utilizing PCR technology for a rapid diagnostic test to identify fish infection with Mycobacterium marinum, M. fortuitum and M. chelonae. A 924 bp DNA fragment from a highly conserved area of the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using mycobacteria genus-specific primers and digested with restriction enzymes (BanI and ApaI). This examination yielded unique restriction patterns for each mycobacterial specie enabling identification of mycobacteria infecting fish to the species level. The protocol can be applied to purified DNA, a simple colony preparation or infected fish tissue. This protocol can be completed in 1-2 days.
URL: 98115223
Ref #: 13195
Author(s): Ucko,M.;Colorni,A.;Kvitt,H.;Diamant,A.;Zlotkin,A.;Knibb,W.R.
Journal: Appl Environ Microbiol
Title: Strain variation in Mycobacterium marinum fish isolates
Volume: 68
Page(s): 5281-7
Year: 2002
Keyword(s): Animal Chaperonins/*classification/genetics DNA, Bacterial/analysis Fishes/*microbiology Mycobacterium marinum/*classification/genetics/isolation & purification Phylogeny RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/*analysis/genetics Restriction Mapping Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Variation (Genetics)
Remarks: A molecular characterization of two Mycobacterium marinum genes, 16S rRNA and hsp65, was carried out with a total of 21 isolates from various species of fish from both marine and freshwater environments of Israel, Europe, and the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of both genes revealed that all M. marinum isolates from fish in Israel belonged to two different strains, one infecting marine (cultured and wild) fish and the other infecting freshwater (cultured) fish. A restriction enzyme map based on the nucleotide sequences of both genes confirmed the divergence of the Israeli marine isolates from the freshwater isolates and differentiated the Israeli isolates from the foreign isolates, with the exception of one of three Greek isolates from marine fish which was identical to the Israeli marine isolates. The second isolate from Greece exhibited a single base alteration in the 16S rRNA sequence, whereas the third isolate was most likely a new Mycobacterium species. Isolates from Denmark and Thailand shared high sequence homology to complete identity with reference strain ATCC 927. Combined analysis of the two gene sequences increased the detection of intraspecific variations and was thus of importance in studying the taxonomy and epidemiology of this aquatic pathogen. Whether the Israeli M. marinum strain infecting marine fish is endemic to the Red Sea and found extremely susceptible hosts in the exotic species imported for aquaculture or rather was accidentally introduced with occasional imports of fingerlings from the Mediterranean Sea could not be determined.
URL: 22293508
Ref #: 1300
Author(s): Skerman,V.B.D.;McGowan,V.;Sneath,P.H.A.(ed)
Journal: Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.
Title: Approved Lists of Bacterial Names.
Volume: 30
Page(s): 225-420
Year: 1980
Ref #: 792
Author(s): Aronson,J.D.
Journal: J. Infect. Dis.
Title: Spontaneous tuberculosis in salt water fish.
Volume: 39
Page(s): 314-320
Year: 1926
Ref #: 13684
Author(s): Stinear,T.P.;Jenkin,G.A.;Johnson,P.D.;Davies,J.K.
Journal: J Bacteriol
Title: Comparative genetic analysis of Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium
Volume: 182
Page(s): 6322-6330
Year: 2000
Keyword(s): 0 (RNA, Bacterial) 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S) Animal Base Sequence Comparative Study Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field *Genes, Structural, Bacterial Human Molecular Sequence Data Mycobacterium marinum/classification/*genetics Mycobacterium ulcerans/classification/*genetics Nucleic Acid Hybridization Phylogeny RNA, Bacterial/analysis RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis Recombination, Genetic Restriction Mapping Sequence Alignment Species Specificity Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Remarks: Previous studies of the 16S rRNA genes from Mycobacterium ulcerans and
URL: 20507800
Data: (ATCC 927, TMC 1218) Type strain / J. D. Aronson, Philadelphia in 1926 / Salt water fish / Aronson, J. D. (1926) J. infect. Dis. 39, 315
Accession Date: 01/01/1926
Authority: Aronson 1926 (AL)
Depositor: ARONSON J D
Taxonomy: TaxLink: S1963 (Mycobacterium marinum Aronson 1926) - Date of change: 5/02/2003
Biosafety Responsibility: It is the responsibility of the customer to ensure that their facilities comply with biosafety regulations for their own country

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The Culture Collections hold cell cultures, bacteria, fungi and virus strains from worldwide sources. Our scientists ensure that the identification of the cultures is correct and they remain unchanged from when they are first deposited with the Collection. Nevertheless, some of the data we provide about the cultures is supplied by the person depositing the strains and, although we have multiple checking procedures in place, we cannot always verify all their data. Please note that the Culture Collections cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies in the data provided by the depositors.

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Ampoule (Bacteria)
Bacterial DNA - 2µg

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